Advances in Applied Psychology
Articles Information
Advances in Applied Psychology, Vol.1, No.1, Aug. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 21, 2015
The Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms Among Caregivers of Children with Mental Disorders Drawn at Kenyatta National Hospital
Pages: 23-30 Views: 3801 Downloads: 763
[01] Otieno Mary Anyango, Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
[02] Obondo Anne, Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
[03] Kang’ethe Rachel, Department of Psychiatry, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
Care giving to children suffering from mental disorders places emotional demands on the caregivers. This may lead to the development of depressive symptoms in the caregivers, which in turn may affect the quality of care that they give to the children. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among caregivers of children with mental disorders. Setting: The study was conducted at the child psychiatry and youth clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Method: A cross sectional descriptive study. The participants were 176 caregivers whose children attended the child psychiatry and youth clinics of Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Data was collected using the researcher designed socio demographic questionnaire and Beck’s Depression Inventory. Results: The mean age was 45.5 years, (76.1 %) were female. Most of the participants were married (64.2%), had secondary level of education (46.6 %), and were employed (59.1%). Clinical depression was at (56.2%).The study found a correlation between clinical depression among caregivers and gender (p=0.007). Conclusion: Caregivers of children with mental disorders are more likely than the general public to have clinical depression. Routine screening of caregivers at the clinics can provide opportunities for early detection of depressive symptoms and intervention.
Mental disorder, Beck’s Depression Inventory, Depressive Symptoms, Depression, Clinical Depression
[01] Arnau, Randolf C.; Meagher, Mary W.; Norris, Margaret P.; Bramson, Rachel. (2001) Psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with primary care medical patients. Health Psychology, Vol 20(2), 112- 119.
[02] Ambikile J.S. & Outwater A. (2012). Challenges of caring for children with mental disorders: Experiences and views of caregivers attending the outpatient clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam - Tanzania Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2012, 6:16
[03] Brannan, A. M., & Heflinger, C. A. (2006). Caregiver, child, family, and service system contributors to caregiver strain in two child mental health service systems. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 33(4), 408–422.
[04] Burns, B., Mustillo, S., Farmer, E., McCrae, J., Kolko, D., Libby, A., et al. (2010). Caregiver depression, mental health service use, and child outcomes. CDC,, accessed March 18, 2009
[05] CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder). CHADD. org mission. Available at:
[06] Cochran, W. G. (1963). Sampling Techniques, 2nd Ed., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
[07] Dohrenwend B.P., & Dohrenwend B.S., (1969). Social Status and Psychological Disorder: A Causal Inquiry. New York, Wiley
[08] Dohrenwend B.S., & Dohrenwend B.P., (1974). Stressful Life Events: Their Nature and Effects. New York, Wiley
[09] Emerson E. (2003). Mothers of children and adolescents with intellectual disability: social and economic situation, mental health status, and the self-assessed social and psychological impact of the child's difficulties. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research (4–5):385–399. [PubMed]
[10] England M.J. & Sim L.J., 2009. Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention, National Academy of Sciences, available at
[11] Family Caregiver Alliance. (2001). Selected caregiver statistics. (Fact Sheet). San Francisco, CA: American Psychological Association
[12] Feldman, M., McDonald, L., Serbin, L., Stack, D., Secco, M., & Yu, C (2007). Predictors of depressive symptoms in primary caregivers of young children with or at risk for developmental delay. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 51(8), 606-619.
[13] Frey K. S., Greenberg M. T. & Fewell R. R. (1989) Stress and coping among parents of handicapped children: a multidimensional approach. American Journal on Mental Retardation 94, 240–9.
[14] Goodhead, A., and J. McDonald. 2007. Informal Caregivers Literature Review: A Report Prepared for the National Health Committee. Wellington, New Zealand: Health Services Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington.
[15] Lau DY, Pang AH. (2007) Care giving experience for Chinese caregivers of persons suffering from severe mental disorders. Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry; 17:75–80.
[16] Lopez S.R. & Guarnaccia P.J.J., (2000). Cultural psychopathology: Uncovering the social world of mental illness. Annual Review of Psychology; 51:571-598.
[17] Magana S. M., Schwartz S. J., Rubert M. P., & Szapocznik J., “Hispanic caregivers of adults with mental retardation: importance of family functioning,” American Journal on Mental Retardation, vol. 111, no. 4, pp. 250–262, 2006. View at Google Scholar
[18] Mbugua N. M., Kuria W. M., & Ndetei M. D., (2007), The Prevalence of Depression among Family Caregivers of Children with Intellectual Disability in a Rural Setting in Kenya. International Journal of Family Medicine Volume 2011, Article ID 534513, 5 pages doi:10.1155/2011/534513
[19] McLearn, K. T., Minkovitz, C. S., Strobino, D. M., Marks, E., & Hou, W. (2006). The timing of maternal depressive symptoms and mothers’ parenting practices with young children: Implications for pediatric practice. Pediatrics, 118, e174–e182.
[20] McLennan, J. D., Kotelchuck, M., & Cho, H. (2001). Prevalence, persistence, and correlates of depressive symptoms in a national sample of mothers of toddlers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1316–1323.
[21] Patel V., (2001) Cultural factors and international epidemiology. British Medical Bulletin 2001; 57: 33-45.
[22] Saunders, J.C. (2003) Families Living with Severe Mental Illness: A Literature Review. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 24,175-198. (90)90016-E
[23] Schulz, R., Tompkins, C., & Rau, M. (1998).A longitudinal study of the psychosocial impact of stroke on primary support persons. Psychology and Aging, 3, 131-141. [MEDLINE]
[24] Sethi, B.B. &Manchanda, R. (1978). Socioeconomic, demographic and cultural correlates of psychiatric disorder with special reference to India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 20, 199- 211.World Health Report, 2001 (2001). World Health Organization
[25] Vogel DL, Wade NG, Wester SR, Larson L, Hackler AH. Seeking help from a mental health professional: The influence of one’s social network. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2007;63(3):233–245. [PubMed]
[26] World Health Organization (2001). Strengthening Mental Health Promotion. Geneva, World Health Organization (Fact sheet no. 220).
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.