Advances in Applied Psychology
Articles Information
Advances in Applied Psychology, Vol.3, No.1, Mar. 2018, Pub. Date: Apr. 9, 2018
Personality, Religiosity and Gender Correlates of Self-Assessed Lie and Truth Related Abilities
Pages: 1-9 Views: 1837 Downloads: 1112
[01] Eitan Elaad, Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
This study examined the predictions of personality dimensions on self-assessed communication abilities to tell and detect lies, tell truths, and believe others. Eighty people from a religious Jewish community (41 females and 39 males), and eighty secular Israelis (40 females and 40 males), were asked to evaluate their lie-truth related abilities relative to others and completed the Big Five personality inventory (BFI). It was found that lower levels of Agreeableness and lower levels of Neuroticism contributed to lie-telling ability assessments. Lower levels of Agreeableness predicted lie-detection and truth telling ability ratings. Believing was driven by higher levels of Agreeableness. Results further indicated that participants overestimated their truth-telling and believing abilities. Secular but not religious participants overestimated their lie-telling and lie-detection abilities, too. Religious male and female participants underestimated their lie-telling abilities. Secular males rated their lie-telling ability higher than secular females. The results were explained, and possible implications were discussed.
Big-Five, Self-Assessed Lying Abilities, Truths, Religiosity, Gender
[01] Almagor, M., Tellegen, A., & Waller, N. G. (1995). The Big Seven model: A cross- cultural replication and further exploration of the basic dimensions of natural language trait descriptors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 300-307.
[02] Ariely, D. (2012). The (Honest) Truth about Dishonesty. New York. Harper-Collins.
[03] Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
[04] Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Prentice-hall series in social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall.
[05] Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1–26.
[06] Barrick, M. R., Shaffer, J. A., & DeGrassi, S. W. (2009). What you see may not be what you get: relationships among self-presentation tactics and ratings of interview and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1394-1411.
[07] Buller, D. B., & Burgoon, J. K. (1994). Deception: Strategic and nonstrategic communication. In J. A. Daly & J M., Wiemann, (Eds). Strategic interpersonal communication. LEA's communication series., (pp. 191-223). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[08] Conrads, J., Irlenbusch, B., & Rilke, R. M. (2013). Lying and team incentives. Journal of Economic Psychology, 34, 1-7.
[09] Day, N. E., Hudson, D., Dobies, P. R., & Waris, R. (2011). Student or situation? Personality and classroom context as predictors of attitudes about business school cheating. Social Psychology of Education, 14, 261-282.
[10] DePaulo, B. M., Lindsay, J. J., Malone, B. E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Cooper, H. (2003). Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 74-118. Ekman.
[11] Durkheim, E. (1965). The elementary forms of the religious life. New York: Free Press.
[12] Ekman, P., & O'Sullivan, M. (1991). Who can catch a liar? American Psychologist, 46, 913-920.
[13] Elaad, E. (2003). Effects of feedback on the overestimated capacity to detect lies and the underestimated ability to tell lies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 349- 363.
[14] Elaad, E. (2009). Lie detection biases among male police interrogators, prisoners, and laypersons. Psychological Reports, 105, 1047-1056.
[15] Elaad, E. (2010). Effects of feedback on self-assessed and actual abilities to tell lies. In: A. E. Hasselm (Ed.), Crime: Causes, Types and Victims. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, pp. 155-166.
[16] Elaad, E. (2015). The distrusted truth: Examination of challenged perceptions and expectations. Psychology, 6, 560-571.
[17] Elaad, E., Lavy, S., Cohenca, D., Berholz, E., Thee, P., & Ben-Gigi, Y. (2012). Lies, truths, and attachment orientations in late adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 52 (6), 670-673.
[18] Elaad, E., & Reizer, A. (2015). Personality correlates of the self-assessed Abilities to tell and detect lies, tell truths and believe others. Journal of Individual Differences, 36, 163-169.
[19] Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in personality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 429-456.
[20] Gillath, O., Sesko, A. K., Shaver, P. R., & Chun, D. S. (2010). Attachment, authenticity, and honesty: Dispositional and experimentally induced security can reduce self-and other-deception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 841-855.
[21] Gneezy, U., Niederle, M., & Rustichini, A. (2003). Performance in competitive environments: Gender differences. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 1049-1074.
[22] Hart, C. L., Hudson, L. P., Fillmore, D. G., & Griffith, J. D. (2006). Managerial beliefs about the behavioral cues of deception. Individual Differences Research, 4 (3), 176-184.
[23] Horn, J., Nelson, C. E., & Brannick, M. T. (2004). Integrity, conscientious and honesty. Psychological Reports, 95, 27-38.
[24] Huffcutt, A. I., Conway, J. M., Roth, P. L., & Stone, N. J. (2001). Identification and meta-analytic assessment of psychological constructs measured in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 897-913.
[25] John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The Big Five inventory- Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.
[26] John, O. P., & Srivastava, S. (1999). The Big Five taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspectives. In L. A. Pervin and O. P. John (Eds.), Handbook of Personality (2nd ed., pp. 102-138). New York: Guilford Press.
[27] Kashy, D. A, & DePaulo, B. M. (1996). Who Lies? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1037-1051.
[28] Kisamore, J. L., Stone, T. H., & Jawahar, I. M. (2007). Academic Integrity: The Relationship between Individual and situational factors on misconduct contemplations. Journal of Business Ethics, 75, 381-394.
[29] Kwan, V. S. Y., Kuang, L. L., & Hui, N. H. H. (2009). Identifying the sources of self-esteem: The mixed medley of benevolence, merit, and bias. Self and Identity, 8, 176-195.
[30] McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. Jr. (1997). Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist, 52, 509-516
[31] McIntyre, H. H. (2010). Gender differences in the nature and linkage of higher-order personality factors to trait and ability emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 617-622.
[32] Moutafi, J., Furnham, A., & Crump, J. (2006). What facets of openness and conscientiousness predict fluid intelligence score? Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 31-42.
[33] Nathanson, C., Paulhus, D., & Williams, K. (2006). Predictors of a behavioral measure of scholastic cheating: Personal and competence but not demographics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 31, 97-121.
[34] Reinhard, M. A., Scharmach, M., & Müller, P. (2013). It's not what you are, it's what you know: experience, beliefs, and the detection of deception in employment interviews. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 467-479. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2013.01011.x
[35] Sagy, S., Orr, E., & Bar-On, D. (1999). Individualism and collectivism in Israeli Society: comparing religious and secular high-school students. Human Relations, 52, 327-348.
[36] Salgado, J. F. (2002). The Big Five personality dimensions and counterproductive behaviors. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 117-125.
[37] Schmitt, D. P., Realo, A., Voracek, M., & Allik, J. (2008). Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in big five personality traits across 55 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 168-182.
[38] Spiro, R., P. Feltovich, M. Jacobson, & R. Coulson. (1995). Cognitive flexibility, constructivism, and hypertext: Random assess instruction for advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured Domains. In T. Duffy & D. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the Technology of Instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[39] Sweeney, C. D., & Ceci, S. J. (2014). Deception detection, transmission, and modality in age and sex. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-10.
[40] Tyler, J. M., Feldman, R. S., & Reichert, A. (2006). The price of deceptive behavior: Disliking and lying to people who lie to us. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 42, 69-77.
[41] Williams, E. F., & Gilovich, T. (2008). Do people really believe they are above average? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1121-1128.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.