American Journal of Educational Science
Articles Information
American Journal of Educational Science, Vol.1, No.2, May 2015, Pub. Date: May 28, 2015
Promoting Students’ Metacognitive Behavior in Physical Education Through TGFU
Pages: 28-36 Views: 3560 Downloads: 2339
[01] Chatzipanteli A., University of Thessaly, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Trikala, Greece.
[02] Digelidis N., University of Thessaly, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Trikala, Greece.
[03] Karatzoglidis C., University of Thessaly, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Trikala, Greece.
[04] Dean R., University of Thessaly, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Trikala, Greece.
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the TGfU (Teaching Games for Understanding) model in promoting metacognitive activity in physical education classes. TGfU is a tactical-game approach to teaching games which utilises modified game forms (e.g., adapting equipment, playing areas, or rules) with the aim of reducing the demands of the game, and by implication, the complexity of learning. Seventy-one students aged 11 and 12 years old were divided into two groups: (i) an experimental group consisting of 29 students (13 boys and 16 girls) and (ii) a control group of 42 students (19 boys and 23 girls). An experimental intervention study in basketball was conducted with pre- and post-tests. Teachers in the intervention classes applied the tactical-game approach (TgfU), while within the control group the skill-based approach was applied. Metacognition was assessed pre and post-intervention using questionnaires, and through observation of problem-solving situations. Repeated measures analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences between groups. The results imply that the tactical-game approach is an effective way to improve metacognitive behavior in physical education classes.
Metacognitive Beahavior, Tactical-Game Approach, Basketball, Elementary School
[01] Alexander, J., Fabricius, W., Fleming, V., Zwahr, M., & Brown, S. (2003). The development of metacognitive causal explanations. Learning and Individual Differences, 13, 227-238.
[02] Allison, S., & Thorpe, R. (1997). A comparison of the effectiveness of two approaches to teaching games within physical education. A skills approach versus games for understanding approach. British Journal of Physical Education, 28, 9-13.
[03] Chatzipanteli, A. (2015). Student-centered teaching styles and metacognition in early childhood physical education. In K. Vann (Ed.), Early Childhood Education: Teachers' Perspectives, Effective Programs and Impacts on Cognitive Development (pp. 93-109). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. ISBN: 978-1-63463-996-5 (eBook).
[04] Chatzipanteli, A., Digelidis, N., Karatzoglidis, C., & Dean, R. (2014). Α tactical-game approach and enhancement of metacognitive behaviour in elementary school students. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. doi: 10.1080/17408989.2014.931366.
[05] Chatzipanteli, Α., Digelidis, Ν, & Papaioannou, G.Α. (in press). Self-regulation, motivation and teaching styles in physical education classes: An intervention study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education.
[06] Chatzipanteli, A., Grammatikopoulos, V., & Gregoriadis, A. (2013). Development and evaluation of metacognition in early childhood education. Early Child Development and Care. Retrieved from:
[07] Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., Shuttleworth, R., Renshaw, I., & Araujo, D. (2007). The Role of Nonlinear Pedagogy in Physical Education. Review of Educational Research, 77, 251-278. doi: 10.3102/003465430305615.
[08] De Backer, L., Van Keer, H., & Valcke. M. (2012). Exploring the potential impact of reciprocal peer tutoring on higher education students’ metacognitive knowledge and regulation, Instructional Science. doi: 10.1007/s11251-011-9190-5.
[09] Flavell, J. H. (1987). Speculation about the nature and development of metacognition. In F. Weinert & R. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation, and understanding (pp.21 - 29). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[10] Gray, S., & Sproule, J. (2011). Developing Pupils’ Performance in Team Invasion Games. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 16, 15–32.
[11] Griffin, L. L., & Butler J. I. (2005). Teaching games for understanding. Theory, Research and Practice. Illinois: Human Kinetics.
[12] Griffin, L. L., Oslin, J. L., & Mitchell, S. A. (1995). An analysis of two instructional approaches to teaching net games [abstract]. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66(suppl.), A-64.
[13] Hartman, H. (2002). Metacognition in Learning and Instruction. USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[14] Harvey, S., & Jarrett, K. (2013). A review of the game-centred approaches to teaching and coaching literature since 2006. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. doi:10.1080/17408989.2012.754005.
[15] Hopper, T. (2002). Teaching games for understanding: The importance of student emphasis over content emphasis. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 73, 44–48.
[16] Howarth, K. (2000). Context as a Factor in Teachers’ Perceptions of the Teaching of Thinking Skills in Physical Education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 19, 270-286.
[17] Kirk, D., & MacPhail, A. (2000). Teaching games for understanding and situated learning: Re-thinking the Bunker-Thorpe model. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21, 177-192.
[18] Lawton, J. (1989). Comparison of two teaching methods in games. Bulletin of Physical Education, 25, 35-38.
[19] Lee, M.H., & Ward, P. (2009). Generalization of Tactics in Tag Rugby from Practice to Games in Middle School Physical Education. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 14, 189–207.
[20] Light, R. (2002). Engaging the body in learning: promoting cognition in games through TgfU. ACHPER Healthy Lifestyles Journal, 49, 23¬26.
[21] Lin, X. D., Schwartz, D. L., & Hatano, G. (2005). Towards teacher’s adaptive metacognition. Educational Psychologist, 40, 245-256.
[22] Luke, I., & Hardy, C. (1999). Pupil’s metacognition and Learning. In: C., Hardy and M. Mawer (Eds). Learning and Teaching in Physical Education, (pp 38-58). N.Y: Routledge.
[23] McKeen, K., Webb, P., & Pearson, P. (2005). Promoting physical activity through teaching games for understanding in undergraduate teacher education. AISEP, 2005 World Congress Proceedings. Active Lifestyles. The Impact of Education and Sport, Lisbon, 251258.
[24] McNeill, M. C., Fry, J. M. & Hairil, B. J. (2011). Motivational Climate in Games Concept Lessons. Journal of Research in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance, 6, 34 -39.
[25] McPhail, A., Kirk, D., & Griffin, L. (2008). Throwing and Catching as Relational Skills in Game Play: Situated Learning in a Modified Game Unit. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27, 100–115.
[26] Mawer, M., (1995). The Effective Teaching of Physical Education. London: Longman.
[27] Maykut, P., & Morehouse, R. (1994). Beginning qualitative research: A philosophic and practical guide. London: The Falmer Press.
[28] Mitchell, S. (2005). Teaching and Learning Games Using TGFU at the Elementary Level. In L.Griffin & J Butler (Eds.) Examining a Teaching Games for Understanding Model. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
[29] Mitchell, S, A., Griffin, L, L., & Oslin, J. L. (1995). An analysis of two instructional approaches to teaching invasion games. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 66 (Suppl.), A-65.
[30] Mitchell, S. A., Oslin, J. L., & Griffin, L. L. (2003). Sport Foundations for Elementary Physical Education: A Tactical Games Approach. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
[31] Moss, S. C., Prosser, H., Costello, H., Simpson, N., Patel, P., Rowe, S., et al. (1998). Reliability and validity of the PAS-ADD checklist for detecting psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42, 173-183.
[32] Oslin, J. L., & Mitchell, S, A. (1998). An investigation of tactical transfer in net games. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. (Suppl.), A-98.
[33] Papaioannou, A., Theodosiou, A., Pashali, M., & Digelidis, N. (2012). Advancing Task Involvement, Intrinsic Motivation and Metacognitive Regulation in Physical Education Classes: The Self-Check Style of Teaching Makes a Difference. Advances in Physical Education, 2, 110-118. doi: 10.4236/ape.2012.23020.
[34] Renshaw, I., Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., & Hammond, J. (2010). A constraints-led perspective to understanding skill acquisition and game play: a basis for integration of motor learning theory and physical education praxis? Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15, 1 - 21.
[35] Rosenzweig, C., Krawec, J., & Montague, M. (2011). Metacognitive Strategy Use of Eighth-Grade Students with and Without Learning Disabilities During Mathematical Problem Solving: A Think-Aloud Analysis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 508-520. doi: 10.1177/0022219410378445.
[36] Schoenfeld, A.H. (1987). What’s all the fuss about metacognition?. In A. H. Schoenfeld (Ed.), Cognitive science and mathematics education (pp. 189-215). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[37] Schraw, G. (2002). Promoting general metacognitive awareness. In H. Hartman (Ed.) Metacognition in Learning and Instruction (pp. 3-16). USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
[38] Theodosiou, A., Mantis, K., & Papaioannou, A. (2008). Student self-reports of metacognitive activity in physical education classes: Age-group differences and the effect of goal orientations and perceived motivational climate. Educational Research and Reviews, 3, 353-364.
[39] Theodosiou, A., & Papaioannou, A. (2006). Motivational climate, achievement goals and metacognitive activity in physical education and exercise involvement in out-of-school settings. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7, 361-380.
[40] Turner, A. (1996). Myth or reality? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 67, 46–49.
[41] Turner, A. (2003). A comparative analysis of two approaches for teaching tennis: Game based Approach versus Technique Approach. Paper presented at the 2nd ITF Tennis science and technology Congress. London.
[42] Turner, A. P., & Martinek, T. J. (1992). A Comparative Analysis of Two Models for Teaching Games: Technique Approach and Game-Centered (Tactical Focus) Approach. International Journal of Physical Education, 29, 15–31.
[43] Turner, A.P., & Martinek, T. J. (1999). An investigation into teaching games for understanding: Effects on skill, knowledge and game play. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70, 286-296.
[44] Veenman, M. V. J., & Beishuizen, J. J. (2004). Intellectual and metacognitive skills of novices while studying texts under conditions of text difficulty and time constraint. Learning and Instruction, 14, 619–638. doi:10.1016/j.learninstruc.2004.09.004.
[45] Yimer, A., & Ellerton, N. (2010). A five-phase model for mathematical problem solving: Identifying synergies in pre-service-teachers’ metacognitive and cognitive actions. ZDM Mathematics Education, 42, 245–261.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.