American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development
Articles Information
American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol.1, No.1, Dec. 2016, Pub. Date: Oct. 19, 2016
Integrated Effect of Slope Classes and Different Soil Depths on Soil Physico-chemical Properties of Watershed Ecosystem
Pages: 6-16 Views: 2389 Downloads: 1832
Authors
[01] Nnabude P. C., Department of Soil and Land Resource Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[02] Nweke I. A., Department of Soil Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Nigeria.
[03] Ekwealor K. U., Department of Soil and Land Resource Management, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
Abstract
Watershed come in many different shapes and sizes and can be affected by many different activities and events. The quality of change of the activities either bad or good has being found to be influenced by slope and depth variations. Thus a field study was conducted to evaluate the soil properties of two contrasting watershed management systems using slope classes (slope 1, 34.8% gradient; slope 2, 29.6% gradient; slope 3, 23.8% gradient; slope 4, 0.52% gradient) and three different soil depths (0-15cm, 15-30cm, and 30-45cm) as an index of the study. The study of the watershed was laid out in an experiment arranged in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates data generated from the study were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means different were separated using least significant difference (LSD). The results of the study showed that slope classes and soil depths studied had significant (P<0.05) effect on the soil properties. The highest available P and TN were observed in slope 4 and 3 respectively. The variation in OC content show an order of slope 3 > slope 4 > slope 2 > slope 1. The lowest bulk density of 1.572gcm-3 was observed in slope 4 (plain). With regard to soil depth all the soil parameters showed decrease in value as soil depths increased, with the exception of clay, silt content and bulk density that increased with increasing soil depth. The highest recorded values for the chemical parameters tested were obtained from 0-15cm soil depth. The interaction effect of slope and soil depth result showed strong influence of the two indices on the soil properties. The slope gradient 4 (lower slope) with soil depth 0-15cm gave the highest value of OC (1.81gkg-1) and available P (20.1mgkg-1) as well as the lowest bulk density value (1.43gcm-3). Top soil depth values were greater in slope 4 with 0-15cm soil depth. The present study findings is of evidence that slope classes and soil depths are indices to be considered in the effective management of watershed as their cumulative effects influenced the productivity of the watershed.
Keywords
Slope, Soil Depth, Soil Physico-chemical Properties, Watershed
References
[01] Walter, T. W. Wegner, G. D. Quinn, G. I. and Lange, E. L. (2007). Nutrient loss via ground water discharge from small watersheds in south-western and south-central Wisconsin J. Soil, Water Conserv. 45: 327-331.
[02] Marilyn Crichlow (2001). Watershed management coastal zone/Island systems management CDCM professional Development Training, The University of Newcastle, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Callaghan, Australia (greg.hancock@newcastle.edu.all).
[03] Al-Jayyousi, Odey and Ger Bergkamp (2008). Water management in the Jordan River basin: Towards anecosystem approach: In management of transboundary rivers and lakes eds Olli Varis, Asit K Biswas andCecilia Tortajada, 105-121, Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer.
[04] Wani, S. P, Sreedavi, T. K, Reddy, T. S. V, Venkateswarlu B and Prasad, C. S.(2008). Community watershed for improved livelihoods through consortium approach in drought prone rain fed areas. J. Hydrol. Res. Develop. 23: 55-77.
[05] Bonell, M. (2007). Runoff generation in tropical forests In: M. Bonell, L. A. Bruijnzeel (eds): Forest, Water and people in the humid tropics. Inter. Hydrology series. Cambridge University Press, PP 314-406.
[06] Bruijnzeel, L. A. (2004). Hydrological functions of tropical forests: not seeing the soil for the trees. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 104: 185-228.
[07] Noguchi, S. Nik, A. R., Tani; M. (2005). Runoff characteristics in tropical rainforest catchment JARQ 39 (3): 215-219.
[08] Holdren, C, Jones, W. and Taggart, J. (2001). Managing lakes and Reservoir. N. B. H. M. lake manage. Soc and Temene Inst, in coop with water Assess. Watershed Prot. DIV. US. Environ. Prot. Agency, Madison, Wl.
[09] Schaetzl, R. J. and Anderson, S.(2005). Soils: Genesis and Geomorphology. Cambridge University Press, P 817.
[10] Woods, R. A. Sivapalan, M. and Robinson J. S (1997). Modeling the spatial variability of subsurface runoff using a topographic index. Water Resour. Res. 33 (5): 1061-1073.
[11] Joshi, P. K., Jha, A. K., Wani, S. P., Sreedevi T. K and Shaheen, F. A. (2008). Impact of watershed program and conditions for success: A meta-Analysis Approach. Global Theme on Agro- ecosystems Report 46. International Crops Research Institute for the semi- arid tropics and National centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research.
[12] AMA (2006). Anambra State metrological agency, annual report, Pp 4.
[13] Juo, A. S. R. (1979). Selected method of soil and plant analysis, IITA Ibadan manual series 1, Pp 86.
[14] Klute, A. A. (1986). Method of soil analysis part 1, 2nd edn ASA Inc publisher, Madison, Wisconsin, USA Pp 1324-1345.
[15] Steel, R. G. D. and Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical approach 2ndednMcGraw Hill Book Co Inc., New York Pp 633.
[16] Nweke, I. A. and Nsoanya L. N. (2012). Inventory of physico-chemical characteristics of soils of the Teaching and Research Farm Faculty of Agriculture, Anambra State University Igbariam- Campus: In: A. O. Aniebo C. O. A. Ugwumba (eds): Environmental concerns and agricultural productivity: Addressing the challenges of food security, Proceedings of International Agricultural conference 6-9th May 2012, held at Anambra State University, pp 488-493.
[17] Rose, E. J.(1977). Application of the universal loss equation in west Africa. In: soil conservation and management in the humid tropics D. J. Freeland and R. W. Wiley (eds) Chichester.
[18] Lal, R. and Cummings, D. J. (1979). Clearing of tropical forest, Effect on soil microclimate. Field Crops Res. 2: 91-102.
[19] Lal, R. (1981). Physical characteristics that influence, plant growth. In characterisation of Soil. D. J. Greenland (ed) Clarendon Press, Oxford.
[20] Mulugeta, L. (2004). Effects of land use changes on soil quality and native force degradation and restoration in the highlands of Ethiopia: implication for sustainable land management. Ph. D. Dissertation, ISSN 1401-6230, ISBN 91-576-6540-0 Presented to Swedish University, of Agricultural sciences, Uppsala, Pp 31-44.
[21] Belayneh, A (209). Effect of land use cover on selected soil physico-chemical properties in the western part of mount Guna mea, South Gonder zone, Amhara National Regional state, Ethiopia, M.Sc. Thesis Mekelle University, Ethiopia, P. 130.
[22] Woldeamlak, B.(2003). Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia the chemoga watershed case study. Tropical Resource Management paper 44, Wageningen University.
[23] Yihenew, E. S and Getachew A (2013). Effects of different land use systems on selected physico-chemical properties of soils in north western Ethiopia. J. Agric. science 114-117.
[24] Evanylo. G. and McGuinn, R. (2000). Agricultural management practices and soil management practices and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality attributes. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, p. 8.
[25] Mohammed, S. (2003). The effect of organic matter on runoff, soil loss and crop yield at Anjeni, west Gojiam, M. Sc. Thesis Alemaya University, Ethiopia.
[26] Nweke, I. A. (2015). Effect of land use on organic matter concentration of aggregate fractions of fallow and cultivated soils, Indian J. Appl. Res. 5 (3): 507 – 512.
[27] Nweke, I. A. and Nnabude, P. C. (2014). Organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorous concentration in aggregate fractions of four soils under two land use systems. J. Res. Appl. Natur. Soc. Sci. 2 (5): 273 – 288.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.