American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development
Articles Information
American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol.4, No.2, Jun. 2019, Pub. Date: May 15, 2019
Technical Report on Entomological Surveillance: Trends in Malaria Sentinel Sites Across Ecological Zones in Nigeria
Pages: 50-59 Views: 138 Downloads: 56
Authors
[01] Ibanga Ekong, Department of Community Health, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.
[02] Joel Akilah, Department of Public Health, Federal Ministry of Health, Abuja, Nigeria.
Abstract
This report, a review and synthesis of six zonal reports, was aimed at examining trends, over an eight-month period, in identifying malaria vectors, their behavioural pattern and susceptibility status to insecticides across the six ecological zones in Nigeria. Review of project reports and Key Informant interviews revealed that monthly entomological surveys of adult mosquitoes using pyrethrum spray collection (PSC) and the CDC human-baited light trap stationed both indoors and outdoors overnight for three to four consecutive days each month generally from March to October 2014. Various relevant parameters, including global positioning system (GPS) locations of the sampling points were recorded in a total of randomly selected 32 houses per site. Samples were collected, identified morphologically and preserved for further laboratory analysis. Larval survey and insecticide resistance testing were conducted with the standard World Health Organization (WHO) procedures and susceptibility test kits using 2 to 3day old adult Anopheles gambiae reared from larval collections. The WHO susceptibility tests were accompanied with the CDC bottle assay tests and results analysed using World Health Organization Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) criteria. Results showed that Anopheles gambiae sensulacto was the dominant malaria vector of each monthly collection either in the PSC or CDC light trap collection indoors or outdoors. The mosquito indoor and outdoor activities were remarkable, showing possible malaria transmission either inside or outside the house. The Anopheles population was highly susceptible to bendiocarb and propoxur insecticides but resistant in variable degrees to primiphos-methyl, permethrin, alpha cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and DDT.
Keywords
Entomological, Surveillance, Malaria, Nigeria
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