International Journal of Animal Biology
Articles Information
International Journal of Animal Biology, Vol.1, No.4, Aug. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 15, 2015
How to Manage Fruit Fly (Family Tephritidae) Pests Damage on Different Plant Host Species by Take up of Physical Control Measures
Pages: 124-129 Views: 2183 Downloads: 1958
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Abstract
This article analyses different fruit fly’s management approaches and offers some solutions and options to deal with this most common pest issues in fruits and vegetables production. Today, gardeners and growers have the ability to control fruit flies successfully as a result of the development of biologically based sustainable pest management strategies that use environmentally friendly methods to suppress fruit flies to economically manageable levels. Specific control measures may be applied to reduce fruit fly populations to or below the specified level of low pest prevalence. Physical controls rely on good horticultural practices to prevent or reduce the probability of fruit fly infestations, and in the absence of that option, the incidence of pest is likely to increase and infestation can be difficult to manage. For this purpose the decision includes creating of barriers and placing of traps for removal of insect pests, and these methods should be considered the first line of defense. Sampling and monitoring are critical to assess the presence and level of prevalence of the target fruit fly species. Parameters used to determine the level of fruit fly prevalence is flies per trap per day that is the result of dividing the total number of captured flies by the product obtained from multiplying the total number of inspected traps by the average number of days the traps have been exposed. Physical controls create a barrier between the pest and the fruit to decrease the probability of fruit flies infestation. Covering of individual fruits (for peaches and other larger fruits), fruiting clusters or entire fruiting plants (for berries) with a fine netting (0.98 mm mesh), nylon stocking or paint strainer bag are promising options. Taking up of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is knowledge intensive and ecologically based decision making process that uses a variety of management tools and methodologies to suppress fly pest populations to acceptable levels but relies primarily on natural mortality factors.
Keywords
Tephritidae, Diptera, Fruit Fly, Vegetable, Fruit, Physical Control
References
[01] Allwood, A. J., Leblanc, L., Tora, V., Ema, B. and Richard, B. 2001. Fruit Fly Control Methods for Pacific Island Countries and Territories. Pest Advisory Leaflet, Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Plant Protection Service, 40.
[02] Dhillon, M. K., Singh, R., Naresh, J. S. and Sharma, H. C. 2005. The melon Fruit Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management. Journal of Insect Science, 5 (40): 1-16.
[03] Gallo, J. 2007. Integrated Plant Control: System and Management. Encyclopedia of Pest Management, 2: 279-287.
[04] Hsu, J. C. and Feng, H. T. 2006. Development of resistance to spinosad in Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in laboratory selection and cross-resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99 (3): 931-936.
[05] International Atomic Energy Agency. 2003. Trapping guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes. Vienna, Austria, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division. 47 p.
[06] International Atomic Energy Agency. 2011. International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures: Establishment of Areas of Low Pest Prevalence for Fruit Flies (Tephritidae). Vienna, Austria, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division. ISPM, 30-20.
[07] Johnson, M. W., Zalom, F. G., Van Steenwyk, R., Vossen, P., Devarenne, A. K., Daane, K. M., Krueger, W. H., Connell, J. H., Yokoyama, V., Bisabri, B., Caprile, J. and Nelson. J. 2006. Olive fruit fly management guidelines for 2006. UC Plant Prot Quart., 16 (3): 1-7.
[08] Kamel, F. and Hoppin, J. A. 2004. Association of pesticide exposure with neurologic dysfunction and disease. Environ. Health Perspect, 112 (9): 950-958.
[09] Ketelaar, J. W. and Kumar, P. 2002. Vegetable integrated production and pest management: The case for Farmers as IPM experts. International Conference on Vegetables, Bangalore, India (11-14 November, 2002). p. 12.
[10] Mwatawala, M. W., De Meyer, M., Makundi, R. H. and Maerere, A. P. 2006. Seasonality and host utilization of the invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens (Dipt., Tephritidae) in central Tanzania. Journal of Applied Entomology, 130 (9-10): 530-537.
[11] Sarwar, M. 2014 a. Knowing About Identify and Mode of Damage by Insect Pests Attacking Winter Vegetables and Their Management. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2 (4): 1-8.
[12] Sarwar, M. 2014 b. Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1 (4): 108-117.
[13] Sarwar, M., Ahmad, N., Rashid, A. and Shah, S. M. M. 2015. Valuation of gamma irradiation for proficient production of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae & Eucoilidae) in the management of the peach fruit-fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). International Journal of Pest Management, 61 (2): 126-134.
[14] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Rasool, B., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2013. Host Preference and Performance of Fruit Flies Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) For Various Fruits and Vegetables. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 1 (8): 188-194.
[15] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2014 a. Monitoring of Population Dynamics and Fruits Infestation of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Orchard. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 3 (2): 36-40.
[16] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2014 b. Monitoring of Population Density and Fruit Infestation Intensity of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Citrus reticulata Blanco Orchard. Journal of Zoological Sciences, 2 (3): 1-5.
[17] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2014 c. Surveillance on Population Dynamics and Fruits Infestation of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Orchards of Faisalabad, Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 2 (4): 113-119.
[18] Shah, S. M. M., Ahmad, N., Sarwar, M. and Tofique, M. 2014. Rearing of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) for parasitoids production and managing techniques for fruit flies in mango orchards. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 34 (S1): 108-113.
[19] Thapinta, A. and Hudak, P. F. 1998. Pesticide use and residual occurrence in Thailand. Environment Monitoring and Assessment, 60: 103-114.
[20] Victor, M. G. S. 2009. Monitoring and pest control of Fruit flies in Thailand: New knowledge for integrated pest management. Examensarbete, 2009: 15, Institutionen for Ekologi, Uppsala. p. 42
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.