International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering
Articles Information
International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol.3, No.4, Jul. 2017, Pub. Date: Dec. 9, 2017
Optogenetics: A Cellular Photoactivation Method and Its Applications in Biomedical Sciences
Pages: 27-35 Views: 934 Downloads: 815
[01] Mustafa Qasim, Department of Health Sciences, Stratford University, Virginia, USA; Deptment of Microbiology, Howard University, Washington DC, USA.
[02] Denver Jn Baptiste, Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington DC, USA.
[03] Hemayet Ullah, Department of Biology, Howard University, Washington DC, USA.
In contrast to the classical activation by microelectrodes, Optogenetics uses light to control ion movement in a more robust manner across the membrane of an engineered cell, alternating the cells function in a desired manner. This review identifies optogenetics, the cascade of events that leads to alternating ion movement, and factors that influence microbial opsins protein function. It discusses factors needed to be considered for an application of optogenetics as a tool and the wavelength of light required to induce retinal isomerization on each type of opsin proteins that leads to photoactivation. Understanding the architecture of opsin proteins is critical in understanding the mechanism by which it transports individual ions. Therefore, in this article, it was necessary to focus on simplifying and explaining the crystal structure of the most common types of opsins (channelrhodopsin, halorhodopsin, and opsin-GPCR), and to explain the changes in protein structure and functional behavior when photo-excitation and inhibition takes place.
Optogenetics, Channelrhodopsin, Opsin, GPCR, Cell Signaling, Photo-Activation, Ion Movement
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