International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences
Articles Information
International Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Vol.5, No.3, Sep. 2020, Pub. Date: Jul. 23, 2020
Self-Reported Compliance and Mental Health Concerns Towards COVID-19 Pandemic: Malaysian Undergraduate Student’s Perspective
Pages: 204-216 Views: 276 Downloads: 589
Authors
[01] Tah Tze Wei, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Melaka, Malaysia.
[02] Young Xin Yee, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Melaka, Malaysia.
[03] Khirtana Baskaran, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Melaka, Malaysia.
[04] Tharshini Devi Naidu Subramaiam, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Melaka, Malaysia.
[05] Githanjali Partheeban, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka-Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education (MAHE), Melaka, Malaysia.
Abstract
Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, the compliance towards the safety measures established are affected by the awareness of provisions, the penalty imposed for breaching MCO rules, the confidence towards government, the support by the government and the severity of influence on economic, and the psychological aspects due to isolation. The mental health of the public is also put under stress due to the numerous propaganda and myths widely spreading in the media. Our study aimed to assess the self-reported compliance and mental health concerns towards the COVID-19 pandemic and find its association with sociodemographic variables among the Malaysian undergraduate students. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2020 in our college, MMMC, Malaysia. Data were collected using an online-administered questionnaire, designed in English which consists of close-ended and multiple-choice questions. The survey items were formulated based on a preprint in Italy with 5 parts, namely 1) demographic profile, 2) self-reported past behaviours, 3) beliefs, perceptions and emotions, 4) future behaviours, and 5) personality battery. Statistical tests (Unpaired t-test and ANOVA) were performed using Epi Info software. Most students are shown to have great compliance towards the safety measures established with a mean score of 87.8. However, there was no significant association between gender, ethnicity, family types, family income and the compliance of MMMC students towards the safety measures of COVID-19. There was a significant association between gender and the mental health concerns where the males had a mean score of 15.2 (SD=3.2), which is slightly lower than females who had a mean score of 16.9 (SD=3.3). However, our study showed no significant association between ethnicity, family types, family incomes and mental health concerns among MMMC students towards COVID-19. These findings thus provide empirical support that the students’ gender plays a significant role in determining the mental health concerns
Keywords
Compliance, Mental Health, Students, COVID-19
References
[01] Davidson H. First Covid-19 case happened in November, China government records show - report [Internet]. the Guardian. 2020 Mar 13 [cited 2020 May 15]. Available from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/13/first-covid-19-case-happened-in-november-china-government-records-show-report.
[02] WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard [Internet]. WHO. 2020 [cited 2020 May 15]. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/.
[03] Epidemiological Data from the nCoV-2019 Outbreak: Early Descriptions from Publicly Available Data [Internet]. Virological. 2020 [cited 2020 May 15]. Available from: http://virological.org/t/epidemiological-data-from-the-ncov-2019-outbreak-early-descriptions-from-publicly-available-data/337.
[04] Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020 Feb 15; 395 (10223): 497-506. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5. Epub 2020 Jan 24. Erratum in: Lancet. 2020 Jan 30; PMID: 31986264; PMCID: PMC7159299.
[05] Rothan H, Byrareddy S. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity. 2020 May; 109: 102433.
[06] Malaysia: COVID-19 daily cases 2020 | Statista [Internet]. Statista. 2020 May [cited 2020 May 15]. Available from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1110785/malaysia-covid-19-daily-cases/#statisticContainer.
[07] Health D. Kenyataan Akhbar KPK 13 Mei 2020 – Situasi Semasa Jangkitan Penyakit Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) di Malaysia [Internet]. From the Desk of the Director-General of Health Malaysia. 2020 May 13 [cited 2020 May 15]. Available from: https://kpkesihatan.com/2020/05/13/ kenyataan-akhbar-kpk-13-may-2020-situasi-semasa-jangkitan-penyakit-coronavirus-2019-covid-19-di-malaysia/.
[08] Plohl N, Musil B. Modeling compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines: The critical role of trust in science. PsyArXiv 6a2cx [Preprint]. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://psyarxiv.com/6a2cx/.
[09] Lewnard J, Lo N. Scientific and ethical basis for social-distancing interventions against COVID-19. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020 Mar 23.
[10] Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia - Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin: Home [Internet]. Prime Minister's Office of Malaysia. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://www.pmo.gov.my/.
[11] Briscese G, Lacetera N, Macis M, Tonin M. Compliance with COVID-19 Social-Distancing Measures in Italy: The Role of Expectations and Duration. The National Bureau of Economic Research. 2020 April;(26916).
[12] Kubota S, Kubota Y. Spreading Coronavirus Prompts Lockdown of More Chinese Cities [Internet]. WSJ. 2020 Jan 23 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://www.wsj.com /articles/spreading-coronavirus-forces-lockdown-of-another-chinese-city-11579774393.
[13] Lau H, Khosrawipour V, Kocbach P, Mikolajczyk A, Schubert J, Bania J, Khosrawipour T. The positive impact of lockdown in Wuhan on containing the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2020 Mar 17; 27 (3): 1-7.
[14] Shayaa S, Mydin D. Is the MCO causing anxiety among Malaysians? Here is what social data suggests - Berkshire Media [Internet]. Berkshire Media. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://berkshiremedia.com.my/measuring-emotions-anxiety-covid19/.
[15] Zandifar A, Badrfam R. Iranian mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic. Asian J Psychiatry. 2020 Mar 4; 51: 101990. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.101990. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32163908; PMCID: PMC7128485.
[16] Huang Y, Zhao N. Chinese mental health burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51: 102052.
[17] Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID-19 outbreak. PLOS ONE. 2020; 15 (4): e0231924.
[18] Portal Rasmi Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia [Internet]. KKM. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://www.moh.gov.my/.
[19] Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar S, Sharma N, Verma S, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020; 51: 102083.
[20] Kvrgic S, Harhaji S, Mijatovic Jovanovic V, Ac Nikolic E, Radic I, Cankovic S, Cankovic D. Gender Differences in Mental Health among Adult Population in Vojvodina, Serbia. Iran J Public Health. 2013 Aug; 42 (8): 833-41. PMID: 26056637; PMCID: PMC4441914.
[21] Gustavson K, Knudsen A, Nesvåg R, Knudsen G, Vollset S, Reichborn-Kjennerud T. Prevalence and stability of mental disorders among young adults: findings from a longitudinal study. BMC Psychiatry. 2018; 18 (1).
[22] Jafari N, Loghmani A, Montazeri A. Mental health of Medical Students in Different Levels of Training. Int J Prev Med. 2012 Mar; 3 (Suppl 1): S107-12. PMID: 22826751; PMCID: PMC3399312.
[23] Wright A, Sonin K, Driscoll J, Wilson J. Poverty and Economic Dislocation Reduce Compliance with COVID-19 Shelter-in-Place Protocols. SSRN 3573637 [Preprint]. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3573637.
[24] Painter M, Qiu T. Political Beliefs affect Compliance with COVID-19 Social Distancing Orders. 2020. SSRN 3569098 [Preprint]. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3569098.
[25] Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Portal [Internet]. DOSM. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cone&menu _id=bFpXb1dF amJWem83N3NpajVhTCtGUT09.
[26] #COVID-19 PKP FASA KE-2: PGU PANTAU PERGERAKAN ORANG RAMAI DI RUANG UDARA IBU KOTA [Internet]. RMP. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://www.rmp.gov.my/news-detail/2020/04/04/covid-19-pkp-fasa-ke-2-pgu-pantau-pergerakan-orang-ramai-di-ruang-udara-ibu-kota.
[27] Barari S, Caria S, Davola A, Falco P, Fetzer T, Fiorin S, et al. Evaluating COVID-19 Public Health Messaging in Italy: Self-Reported Compliance and Growing Mental Health Concerns. medRxiv 20042820 [Preprint]. 2020 [Cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.27.20042820.
[28] Kuiper M, de Bruijn A, Reinders Folmer C, Olthuis E, Brownlee M, Kooistra E et al. The Intelligent Lockdown: Compliance with COVID-19 Mitigation Measures in the Netherlands. SSRN 3598215 [Preprint]. 2020 [cited 2020 May 17]. Available from: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3598215.
[29] Bodas M, Peleg K. Self-Isolation Compliance In The COVID-19 Era Influenced By Compensation: Findings From A Recent Survey In Israel. Health Affairs. 2020; 39 (6): 936-941.
[30] Brouard S, Vasilopoulos P, Becher M. Sociodemographic and Psychological Correlates of Compliance with the COVID-19 Public Health Measures in France. Canadian Journal of Political Science. Cambridge University Press; 2020 Apr 23; 1–6.
[31] Reznik A, Gritsenko V, Konstantinov V, Khamenka N, Isralowitz R. COVID-19 Fear in Eastern Europe: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020 May 12.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.