International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science
Articles Information
International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science, Vol.1, No.3, Oct. 2015, Pub. Date: Aug. 24, 2015
The Killer Chemicals as Controller of Agriculture Insect Pests: The Conventional Insecticides
Pages: 141-147 Views: 2030 Downloads: 3117
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
This article explores the widespread use of insecticides in agriculture and compares the benefits and problems associated with these helpful but dangerous chemicals. Agriculture is practiced in the world from the earliest history of mankind and even now there are several agrarian countries where the economy is mainly dependent on agriculture. The basic aim of agriculture is to produce sufficient food for the growing population and fodder for cattle, and also to provide agricultural products for global and local trades besides maintaining of buffer stock of food for emergent situations. Plants in the garden or landscape are under constant competition with insects, animals and diseases that use the plants as a host or source of nutrition. This is the reason that farmers and gardeners turn to pesticides to control these competitors. Pesticides include organic forms of pest control, but also are synthetic control options known as conventional pesticides. Insecticides are chemicals used worldwide to manage agricultural pests on plants. These kill and repel unwanted pests, but also cause many human deaths each year. Since the late some decades, Entomologists and Chemists have made outstanding progress in the technology of pest control. Today's the store of weapons is large and diverse, encompassing legal, cultural, physical, genetic, and biological tactics, in addition to the well-known chemical pesticides. This is a most common method of pest control by the use of insecticides, these are chemicals that either kill pests or inhibit their development. Pesticides are often classified according to the pest they are intended to control. For instance, insecticides are used to control insects, herbicides to control plants, fungicides for fungi, rodenticides for rodents, avicides for birds, and bactericides manage bacteria. A perfect insecticide should have high toxicity to target pest, selective toxicity to beneficial insects, low toxicity to plants and other non-target organisms, no harmful residue, cheap and safe to manufacture, stabile under storage, non-corrosive and residues readily and cheaply detectable. Hence, compared to other forms of control, insecticide use is highly effective, easily employed by farmers and in many cases there is no commercially viable alternative. The wise use of insecticide depends on public awareness of long-term health and environmental hazards, and to contact with an expert for help in identifying pest and disease problems, which in turn, give crop owners with some control over protecting their environment.
Pesticide, Environment, Agriculture, Crops, Livestock, Economic Threshold, Public Health
[01] Ahmed, M.M., Elhassan, A.M. and Kannan, H.O. 2002. Use of Combined Economic Threshold Level to Control Insect Pests. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropic, 103 (2): 147-156.
[02] Akbar, A., Sarwar, M., Ahmad, N. and Tofique, M. 2005. Evaluation of Different Granular Insecticides for the Suppression of Rice Stem Borers. Proce. 25th Pakistan Conger of Zoology, March 1-3, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam. 25: 49-55.
[03] Gosselin, R.E., Smith, R.P. and Hodge, H.C. 1984. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed., Williams & Wilkins. Baltimore, MD. IN-CIDE: Pest control insulation. Energy Design Update, 4 (11): 13-14.
[04] Hall, F.R. 1991. Pesticide application technology and integrated pest management (IPM). In: D. Pimentel (Ed.), Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, Vol. II, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press. p. 135-170.
[05] Hart, K. and Pimentel, D. 2002. Public health and costs of pesticides. In: D. Pimentel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Pest Management, New York, Marcel Dekker. p. 677-679.
[06] Kongming, W. and Yuyuan, G. 2004. Changes in susceptibility to conventional insecticides of a Cry1Ac-selected population of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pest Management Science, 60 (7): 680-684.
[07] Leon, G.H. and Larry, P.P. 1997. Economic Thresholds for Integrated Pest Management. University of Nebraska Press. 327 p.
[08] Mascarelli, A. 2013. Growing Up with Pesticides. Science, 341 (6147): 740.
[09] McCauley, L.A., Anger, W.K., Keifer, M., Langley, R., Robson, M.G. and Rohlman, D. 2006. Studying health outcomes in farmworker populations exposed to pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (3): 953-960.
[10] Minyard, J.P. and Roberts, W.E. 1991. A state data resource on toxic chemicals in foods. Pages 151-161. In: B.G. Tweedy, H.J. Dishburger, L.G. Ballantine, and J. McCarthy, Eds. Pesticide Residues and Food Safety: A Harvest of Viewpoints. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
[11] National Academy of Sciences. 1989. Diet and health implications for reducing chronic diseases. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press. 749 p.
[12] Pimentel, D. 1996. Pest management in agriculture. In: D. Pimentel, Ed., Techniques for Reducing Pesticides: Environmental and Economic Benefits. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. p. 1-11.
[13] Pimentel, D. 2005. Environmental and Economic Costs of the Application of Pesticides Primarily in the United State. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 7: 229-252.
[14] Pimentel, D. and Greiner, A. 1997. Environmental and socio-economic costs of pesticide use. In: D. Pimentel (Ed.), Techniques for Reducing Pesticide Use: Environmental and Economic Benefits, Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons. p. 51-78.
[15] Pimentel, D. and Hart, K. 2001. Pesticide use: Ethical, environmental, and public health implications. In: W. Galston and E. Shurr (Eds.), New Dimensions in Bioethics: Science, Ethics and the Formulation of Public Policy, Boston, MA, Kluwer Academic Publishers. p. 79-108.
[16] Pimentel, D., Wilson, C., McCullum, C., Huang, R., Dwen, P., Flack, J., Tran, Q., Saltman, T. and Cliff, B. 1997. Economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity. Bioscience, 47 (11): 747-757.
[17] Robert, F., Luck, R., Bosch, V.D. and Garcia, R. 1977. Chemical Insect Control: A Troubled Pest Management Strategy. Bioscience, 27 (9): 606-611.
[18] Sarwar, M. 2012. Frequency of Insect and mite Fauna in Chilies Capsicum annum L., Onion Allium cepa L. and Garlic Allium sativum L. Cultivated Areas, and their Integrated Management. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 3 (5): 173-178.
[19] Sarwar, M. 2013 a. Comparative Suitability of Soil and Foliar Applied Insecticides against the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Aphididae: Hemiptera) In Canola Brassica napus L. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 1 (7): 138-143.
[20] Sarwar, M. 2013 b. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - A Constructive Utensil to Manage Plant Fatalities. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 2 (3): 1-4.
[21] Sarwar, M. 2013 c. Development and Boosting of Integrated Insect Pests Management in Stored Grains. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 2 (4): 16-20.
[22] Sarwar, M. 2014. Implementation of Integrated Pest Management Tactics in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Controlling of Rice Stem Borers (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Rice Plus Magazine, 6 (1): 4-5.
[23] Sarwar, M. 2015 a. Feasibility for Development of Comparative Life Histories and Predation of Predatory Mites in Phytoseiidae Complex and Their Experimental Manipulations for Pests Control. International Journal of Animal Biology, 1 (5): 150-157.
[24] Sarwar, M. 2015 b. Mite Pests (Acari) in Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Plantations and Implementation of Control Strategy. Bioscience and Bioengineering, 1 (3): 41-47.
[25] Sarwar, M. 2015 c. Practices for Integrated Control of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Diseases to Protect in Preharvest as Well as Postharvest Phases. Bioscience and Bioengineering, 1 (3): 57-62.
[26] Sarwar, M. 2015 d. The Dangers of Pesticides Associated with Public Health and Preventing of the Risks. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1 (2): 130-136.
[27] Sarwar, M. 2015 e. Commonly Available Commercial Insecticide Formulations and Their Applications in the Field. International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, 1 (2): 116-123.
[28] Sarwar, M. and Hamza, A. 2013. Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Strategy in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice Plus Magazine, 5 (9): 6-7.
[29] Sarwar, M., Ahmad, N., Bux, M., Nasrullah and Tofique, M. 2011. Comparative field evaluation of some newer versus conventional insecticides for the control of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The Nucleus, 48(2): 163-167.
[30] Sarwar, M., Ahmad, N., Siddiqui, Q.H., Rajput, A.A. and Tofique, M. 2003. Efficiency of different chemicals on Canola strain Rainbow (Brassica napus L.) for aphids control. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 2 (11): 831-833.
[31] Sarwar, M., Akbar, A., Ahmad, N., Khan, G.Z. Bux, M. and Tofique, M. 2007. Field Performance of Systemic Foliar and Granular Insecticides against Rice Stem Borers (Scirpophaga spp.) in Rice Crop. Proce. 26th Pakistan Conger of Zoology, Multan, March, 1-3. 27: 89-94.
[32] Sarwar, M., Kongming, W. and Xuenong, X. 2009. Evaluation of biological aspects of the predacious mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) due to prey changes using some selected Arthropods. International Journal of Acarology, 35 (6): 503-509.
[33] Sarwar, M., Xuenong, X. and Kongming, W. 2010. Effects of different flours on the biology of the pry Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acarina: Acaridae) and the predator Neoseiulus pseudolongispinosus (Xin, Liang and Ke) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). International Journal of Acarology, 36 (5): 363-369.
[34] Sarwar, M., Xuenong, X. and Kongming, W. 2012. Suitability of webworm Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) eggs for consumption by immature and adults of the predatory mite Neoseiulus pseudolongispinosus (Xin, Liang and Ke) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 10 (3): 786-793.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.