International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science
Articles Information
International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science, Vol.1, No.4, Dec. 2015, Pub. Date: Jan. 6, 2016
Problem Created Owing to Insects in Carrying Vector Borne Diseases and Combined Vector Control Approach
Pages: 303-309 Views: 1091 Downloads: 671
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Department of Entomology, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Abstract
Vectors are living organisms that serve as vehicles to transmit a pathogen (a disease-causing agent like a virus or parasite) from a host to a human or to an animal or both, and vector-borne diseases are infectious diseases or illness transmitted through insects. This article combines practical information from successful vector control programs, including early use of chemicals and recent research into a vital resource for all involving in combating insect’s vector borne diseases. Diseases transmitted by insects are continuing to have a major impact on human populations. Malaria, dengue, onchocerciasis, sleeping sickness and leishmaniasis all adversely affect humans. Malaria and dengue are one of the most important causes of adults and children mortalities, and reduce economic development in many countries, with agricultural productivity often greatly reduced, as many vectors are active in the wet season that is favourable for crop production. Vector control is crucial to reduce the extent to which drugs are needed to treat the diseases, as the parasite can become resistant, or the drugs are often too expensive for those living in rural and urban areas that are most affected by these diseases. In contrast to expenditure and effort on consultation, diagnostic, medicine and vaccine development, relatively little attention has been given to vector control in the past. Vector control is encouraging where insects control has been consistently applied in the past and the results have been dramatic especially with early efforts by sprayings inside surfaces of houses with insecticides. As a result, integrated vector management (IVM) is a process for managing vector populations in such a way as to reduce or interrupt transmission of disease. Characteristic features of IVM include methods based on knowledge of factors influencing local vector biology, disease transmission and morbidity, use of a range of interventions often in combination and synergistically, collaboration within the health sector and with other public and private sectors that impact on vectors, engagement with local communities and other stakeholders, and a public health regulatory and legislative framework. It covers the main chemical methods of vector control, including the use of indoor residual spraying, space treatments, use of treated bed nets and larviciding, but also stresses on the importance of drainage schemes and improvement of houses to prevent access of indoor vectors, and techniques that have largely been responsible for reducing the risk of vector borne diseases.
Keywords
Vector Control, Situation Analysis, Preventative Measure, Disease Management, Insect
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