International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management
Articles Information
International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Vol.6, No.4, Dec. 2020, Pub. Date: Nov. 23, 2020
Medical Prominence of Solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae) in Natural Surroundings
Pages: 98-104 Views: 121 Downloads: 100
[01] Mahad Bin Zahid, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.
[02] Muhammad Farhan Sarwar, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.
[03] Muhammad Haroon Sarwar, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.
[04] Muhammad Sarwar, Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Solifugae (solifuges, solifugids, solpugids) is an order of animals in the class Arachnida known variously as camel spiders, wind scorpions or sun spiders. The order includes more than 1100 described species in about 153 genera within 12 families. Solpugids arachnids occur in tropical and temperate deserts with large distinctive curved chelicerae, often as long as the cephalothorax. Despite of the common names, they are neither true scorpion (order Scorpiones) nor true spiders (order Araneae). Solpugids have lack of sting, are bigger than spiders and unlike spiders do not have any poisonous glands. They differ most obviously from their spider and scorpion relatives in three ways: their massive two-segmented jaws, which can be up to one-third of their body length and are armed with teeth and spine-like and horn-like processes of various sizes; the flagellum, found on the jaws of adult males in most species and thought to play a major role in reproduction; and the malleoli, racquet-shaped sensory organs on the underside of the first segment of the last pair of legs. Solifugae live in dry climates and feed opportunistically on ground-dwelling arthropods and other small animals. The largest species grow to a length of 12-15 cm, including legs. They are typically crepuscular or nocturnal, hiding during the day under stones and in crevices or burrowing in loose soil and habitats largely devoid of vegetation; while some species occur in grasslands and forests. They ruthlessly chase, hunt, stalk and scavenge using their leg-lengthed pedipalps to snatch prey while using their jaw-like chelicera, and process digestive juices to masticate their invertebrate and small vertebrate victims to a pulp. Despite of their formidable appearance and aggressive nature, solpugids lack venom glands and are relatively harmless to humans and most domestic animals (they can nip if grab them). Wind scorpions will only attack if they feel threatened or they are disturbed and this will result in a bite, but because they cannot produce venom, the bite is not serious. Apply an ice pack to reduce any pain or discomfort on the affected area by putting of ice in a plastic sealable bag. Bites by larger species, however, can puncture or lacerate the skin, occasionally requiring stitches to close the wound. A solpugid’s access into the home can be greatly reduced by checking of caulking and weather stripping around windows and doors as well as sealing areas where utilities (water, electricity, gas, etc.,) come into the home. Periodically checking around these areas is a good practice and will limit entry by other nuisance pests such as ants, mice, rats, scorpions, centipedes and bugs. This article describes their general appearance, greatly enlarged chelicerae for capturing of insects and other prey, unique sensory structures called racquet organs, biology and behaviour, medical importance along with treatment and control.
Arachnida, Chelicerata, Camel Spiders, Solpugid Fauna, Biodiversity
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