International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management
Articles Information
International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Vol.6, No.4, Dec. 2020, Pub. Date: Nov. 23, 2020
Medical Prominence of Solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae) in Natural Surroundings
Pages: 98-104 Views: 121 Downloads: 100
Authors
[01] Mahad Bin Zahid, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.
[02] Muhammad Farhan Sarwar, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.
[03] Muhammad Haroon Sarwar, Mayo Hospital, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan.
[04] Muhammad Sarwar, Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Abstract
Solifugae (solifuges, solifugids, solpugids) is an order of animals in the class Arachnida known variously as camel spiders, wind scorpions or sun spiders. The order includes more than 1100 described species in about 153 genera within 12 families. Solpugids arachnids occur in tropical and temperate deserts with large distinctive curved chelicerae, often as long as the cephalothorax. Despite of the common names, they are neither true scorpion (order Scorpiones) nor true spiders (order Araneae). Solpugids have lack of sting, are bigger than spiders and unlike spiders do not have any poisonous glands. They differ most obviously from their spider and scorpion relatives in three ways: their massive two-segmented jaws, which can be up to one-third of their body length and are armed with teeth and spine-like and horn-like processes of various sizes; the flagellum, found on the jaws of adult males in most species and thought to play a major role in reproduction; and the malleoli, racquet-shaped sensory organs on the underside of the first segment of the last pair of legs. Solifugae live in dry climates and feed opportunistically on ground-dwelling arthropods and other small animals. The largest species grow to a length of 12-15 cm, including legs. They are typically crepuscular or nocturnal, hiding during the day under stones and in crevices or burrowing in loose soil and habitats largely devoid of vegetation; while some species occur in grasslands and forests. They ruthlessly chase, hunt, stalk and scavenge using their leg-lengthed pedipalps to snatch prey while using their jaw-like chelicera, and process digestive juices to masticate their invertebrate and small vertebrate victims to a pulp. Despite of their formidable appearance and aggressive nature, solpugids lack venom glands and are relatively harmless to humans and most domestic animals (they can nip if grab them). Wind scorpions will only attack if they feel threatened or they are disturbed and this will result in a bite, but because they cannot produce venom, the bite is not serious. Apply an ice pack to reduce any pain or discomfort on the affected area by putting of ice in a plastic sealable bag. Bites by larger species, however, can puncture or lacerate the skin, occasionally requiring stitches to close the wound. A solpugid’s access into the home can be greatly reduced by checking of caulking and weather stripping around windows and doors as well as sealing areas where utilities (water, electricity, gas, etc.,) come into the home. Periodically checking around these areas is a good practice and will limit entry by other nuisance pests such as ants, mice, rats, scorpions, centipedes and bugs. This article describes their general appearance, greatly enlarged chelicerae for capturing of insects and other prey, unique sensory structures called racquet organs, biology and behaviour, medical importance along with treatment and control.
Keywords
Arachnida, Chelicerata, Camel Spiders, Solpugid Fauna, Biodiversity
References
[01] Sarwar, M. 2015. Insect Borne Diseases Transmitted by Some Important Vectors of Class Insecta Hurtling Public Health. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1 (3): 311-317.
[02] Sarwar, M. 2015. Direct Possessions of Insect Arthropods on Humans Owing to Allergen, Bloodsucking, Biting, and Stinging Side By Side Case Diagnosis and Treating. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1 (3): 331-337.
[03] Sarwar, M. 2015. Dissemination of Infectious Agents of Human Diseases via Insects Vectors of Public Health Prominence. American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 1 (3): 169-174.
[04] Sarwar, M. 2015. Insects Effecting by Annoyance to Peoples Relating to the Public Health Concerns. American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 1 (3): 175-181.
[05] Sarwar, M. 2015. Insect Vectors Involving in Mechanical Transmission of Human Pathogens for Serious Diseases. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1 (3): 300-306.
[06] Sarwar. M. 2016. Diseases Transmitted by Blood Sucking Mites and Integrated Mite Management for Their Prevention. American Journal of Food Science and Health, 2 (6): 169-175.
[07] Sarwar, M. H. and M. Sarwar. 2016. Medical Importance of Ticks Bite and Diseases Transmission by Means of It Affecting Humans. Biomedical and Health Informatics, 1 (2): 44-51.
[08] Sarwar, M. 2016. Ticks (Arachnida: Acari) induced Paralysis in Humans and Control of Incidence in the Current Civilization. International Journal for Research in Social Science and Humanities Research, 1 (7): 27-36.
[09] Sarwar, M. 2016. Mites (Arachnida: Acarina) Affecting Humans and Steps Taking for the Solution of Problematics. International Journal for Research in Mechanical Engineering, 1 (7): 1-14.
[10] Sarwar, M. 2016. Life History of House Fly Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae), its Involvement in Diseases Spread and Prevention of Vector. International Journal for Research in Applied Chemistry, 1 (7): 23-34.
[11] Sarwar, M., Ayesha, N., Sarwar, M. H. and Jaweria, N. 2017. Miscellaneous Ways to Repel, Treat and Avoid Being Bitten by Sand Flies (Diptera: Pschodidae: Phlebotominae) on Human. American Journal of Food Science and Health, 3 (4): 64-69.
[12] Sarwar, M., Sarwar, M. H. and Khan, M. A. 2017. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Its Prevention in Humans through Tick Vectors Control. International Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 3 (3): 16-22.
[13] Sarwar, M. 2020. House Dust Mites: Ecology, Biology, Prevalence, Epidemiology and Elimination. In: Parasitology and Microbiology Research, G. A. B. Pacheco and A. A. Kamboh (Eds.). IntechOpen Ltd., London, UK. p. 26.
[14] Sarwar, M. 2020. Typical Flies: Natural History, Lifestyle and Diversity of Diptera. In: Life Cycle and Development of Diptera (M. Sarwar, Editor). IntechOpen Ltd., London, UK. p. 50.
[15] Harvey, M. S. 2002. The neglected cousins: what do we know about the smaller arachnid orders?. The Journal of Arachnology, 30: 357–372.
[16] Punzo, F. 1998. The Biology of Camel-Spiders (Aachnida, Solifugae). Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston. 301 pp.
[17] Brookhart, J. O. and Cushing, P. E. 2004. The systematics of the Eremobates scaber species-group (Solifugae, Eremobatidae). Journal of Arachnology, 32: 284–312.
[18] Levin, S. A. 2001. Encyclopedia of biodiversity, vol. 1. Academic Press. p. 943.
[19] Penney, D. 2009. Solifugae (camel spiders). Common Spiders and Other Arachnids of the Gambia, West Africa. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester. p. 71.
[20] Valdivia, D. E., Pizarro–Araya, J., Briones, R., Ojanguren–Affilastro, A. A. and Cepeda–Pizarro, J. 2011. Species composition and abundance of solpugids (Arachnida: Solifugae) in ecotopes of the transitional coastal desert of Chile. Rev. Mex. Biodiv., 82 (4).: 1234-1242.
[21] Klotz, J. H., Klotz, S. A. and Pinnas, J. L. 2009. Animal bites and stings with anaphylactic potential, Journal of Emergency Medicine, 36 (2): 148–156,
[22] Shine, R. 2000. The Bites and stings from venomous animals: a global overview. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 22 (1): 65–68.
[23] Bird, T., Wharton, R. and Prendini, L. 2015. Cheliceral Morphology. In: Solifugae (Arachnida): Primary Homology, Terminology, and Character Survey. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 394: 1–355.
[24] Shultz, J. W. 1989. Morphology of locomotor appendages in Arachnida: evolutionary trends and phylogenetic implications. The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology, 97: 1–56.
[25] Cushing, P. E., Brookhart, J. O., Kleebe, H. J., Zito, G. and Payne, P. 2005. The suctorial organ of the Solifugae (Arachnida, Solifugae). Arthropod Structure and Development, 34: 397-406.
[26] Dippenaar, A. 1993. Sunspiders - some interesting facts. African Wildlife, 47(3): 120-122.
[27] Pechenik, J. 1996. Biology of the Invertebrates (2nd edition). Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Publishers. 567p.
[28] Dippenaar-Schoeman, A. S., Gonzalez-Reyers, A. X. and Harvey, M. S. 2006. A check-list of the Solifugae (sun spiders) of South Africa (Arachnida: Solifugae). African Plant Protection, 12: 70-92.
[29] Dehghani, R., Khamehchian, T. and Miranzadeh, M. B. 2007. Surveying on the biologic behaviors of Hemiscorpius lepturus (Peters, 1861) scorpion in laboratory (Khuzestan, Iran) (Scorpions: Hemiscorpiidae). Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 3097-3102.
[30] Maddahi, H., Aliabadian, M., Moradmand, M. and Mirshamsi, O. 2019. New insights to the taxonomy of Rhagodes eylandti (Walter, 1889): A remarkable sexually dimorphic species (Solifugae: Rhagodidae). Zootaxa, 4648 (3): 494-510.
[31] Valdez, J. W. 2020. Arthropods as vertebrate predators: A review of global patterns. Global Ecology and Biogeography 29 (10): 1691-1703.
[32] Dehghani, R. 2017. Solpugidophobia in Iran: Real or Illusion. Journal of Biology and Today's World, 6 (3): 46-48.
[33] Pocock, R. I. 1895. Notes on some Solifugae contained in the collection of the British Museum with descriptions of new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Ser 6, 16 (91). 74–98.
[34] Dunlop, J. A. and Penney, D. 2012. Fossil Arachnids. Scientific Press. Monograph Series Vol. 2. Siri Scientific Press, Manchester, 192 pp.
[35] Dehghani, R., Kassiri, H., Mazaheri-Tehrani, A., Hesam, M,, Yaselyani, N. and Akbarzadeh, F. 2019. A preliminary study on fauna of medical important solpugid (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Solifugae) in Kashan City, Central Iran. Biomedical Research, 30 (1): 67-71.
[36] Dehghani, R., Kamiabi, F. and Mohammadi, M. 2018. Scorpionism by Hemiscorpius spp. in Iran: a review. J. Venom Animals Toxins Trop, Dis., 24: 8.
[37] Firoozfar, F., Norjah, N., Baniardalani, M. and Moosa-Kazemimm, H. 2012. Knowledge, attitudes and practices study in relation to entomophobia and its application in vector-borne diseases. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Biomed., 2 (2): 1135-1137.
[38] Schmidt, G. 1993. Giftige und gefahrliche Spinnentiere. Westarp Wissenschaften. 160 pp.
[39] Conlon, J. M. 1991. Vectors & War. Part 2. Desert Storm. Wing Beats. Florida Mosquito Control Association, 22, 16-20, 22.
[40] Mullen, G. R. 2019. Solpugids (Solifugae). In: Medical and Veterinary Entomology (Third Edition) G. R. Mullen and L. A. Durden (Eds.), Elsevier Science. pp. 505-506.
[41] Barnes, R. D. 1982. Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 613–614.
[42] Harvey, M. S. 2003. Catalogue of the Smaller Arachnid Orders of the World: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria. 385 pp.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.