International Journal of Plant Science and Ecology
Articles Information
International Journal of Plant Science and Ecology, Vol.1, No.4, Aug. 2015, Pub. Date: May 26, 2015
Apple Breeding in Tunisia and the Actual Climatic Context: Quality Assessment and Crop Adaptation
Pages: 131-137 Views: 3610 Downloads: 985
Authors
[01] Mehdi Trad, Laboratory of Horticulture, National Institute for Agricultural Research, Inrat, Tunisia.
[02] Badii Gaaliche, Laboratory of Horticulture, National Institute for Agricultural Research, Inrat, Tunisia.
[03] Rym Bouhlal, Laboratory of Horticulture, National Institute for Agricultural Research, Inrat, Tunisia.
[04] Mounira Harbi, Laboratory of Horticulture, National Institute for Agricultural Research, Inrat, Tunisia.
[05] Hmida Ben Hamda, Laboratory of Horticulture, National Institute for Agricultural Research, Inrat, Tunisia.
[06] Salem Laouini, Laboratory of Horticulture, National Institute for Agricultural Research, Inrat, Tunisia.
Abstract
An apple breeding program has recently led to thirteen new apple accessions (H1 to H13) growing at the INRAT experimental station in north-east Tunisia. Assessment of Quality performances on the basis of morpho-chemical traitsshowed a large diversity between apple genotypes. Fruit size and yield were obviously different. Average fruit weight varied between 73 g (H1 samples) and 183 g (H9 fruits). A large diversity was observed in fruit shape and colour, the fruit can be globose conical (H1, H4, H6 and H12), flat (H8, H9, H10 and H11), oblate (H3, H7 and H13) or conical (H5). Ground colour of the skin varied from yellow green (H1 and H3), red green (H9, H10 and H13), yellow (H5 and H6) to red (H2, H8 and H12) and chromaticity values were strong related to external fruit colour. Fruit firmness ranged between 0.496 and 0.644 kg/cm2. Total soluble solids (TSS) ranged between 13.2% and 16.5% and titratable acidity (TA) of the juice between 0.005 and 0.011 g malic acid/L. The index of maturity (IM = TSS/TA) was the highest for H2 while H7 apples exhibited the lowest IM score. Juice yield, an important criterion in postharvest technology, varied from 27% in H7 apples to 44% in H12 fruits. The results give a preliminary classification of the 13 new apple accessions using quality rating of the fruit. The range of apple strains H2, H8, H9 and H13 presented the most attractive fruit considering physical aspects, while H2, H3, H7 and H10remain interesting on the basis of flavour and quality taste of the fruit which could be somewhat explained by the advancedstage of maturity reached by these fruits at the harvest time.
Keywords
Malus Domestica, Quality Rating, Fruit Shape, Skin Colour, Maturity Index, Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis
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