Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering
Articles Information
Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Vol.6, No.3, Sep. 2020, Pub. Date: Sep. 28, 2020
Integrated Pest Management Package for Leafhoppers and Planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Paddy Fields
Pages: 26-37 Views: 35 Downloads: 9
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Abstract
The aim of the present article is to shed light on the current status, species composition, abundance, habitat affinities, distribution patterns of leafhoppers and planthoppers along with their integrated pest management (IPM) in the rice growing regions. Leafhoppers and planthoppers such as white rice leafhopper (Cofana spectra Distant), brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal), whitebacked planthopper [Sogatella furcifera (Horvath)], green planthoppers [Nephotettix nigropictus (Stal)] and Nephotettix virescens (Distant), and lophopid leafhopper (Pyrilla perpusilla Walker) are sap feeders from the xylem and phloem tissues of the plant. Both adults plus nymphs of leafhoppers and planthoppers have piercing mouthparts that they insert into the leaf blades and leaf sheaths of rice plants to suck sap, and egg laying by hoppers blocks the water and food channels inside the plant. Severely damaged plants become dry and take on the brownish appearance as these have been damaged by fire, hence termed as hopper burn and at this level, crop loss may be 100%. The Integrated Pest Management (IPM) philosophies are growing a healthy crop by conserving of natural enemies; observing the field regularly (e.g., water, plants, pests and natural enemies); and farmers should strive to become experts. Simultaneous planting and cropping of rice over large areas; rotating rice with non-host crops, or fallowing between two rice crops; selective elimination of suitable hosts and habitats (sanitation); plant spacing to allow some sunlight to reach basal portion of plant; proper water management i.e., raising water level, or draining; early planting of short-season rice; integration of resistant varieties; and judicious use of pesticides are key component in IPM. Host plant resistance has served as a key component in IPM programs and in the development of sustainable rice creation systems, widespread adoption of such varieties has helped to stabilize rice production. The overall assessment indicates that resistance in rice to the hoppers is shown by the combined influence of non‐preference by the hoppers for feeding, orientation and oviposition coupled with antibiosis. However, to accomplish this, decision-making must always take into consideration both the costs of inputs and the ecological ramifications of these inputs.
Keywords
Rice Pests, Oryza sativa, Pesticide, Planthopper, Leafhopper, Feeding Damage
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