Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering
Articles Information
Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Vol.7, No.3, Sep. 2021, Pub. Date: Aug. 30, 2021
The Effect of Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) on Water Quality: The Case of Usuthu Forest Company Water Scheme, Eswatini
Pages: 68-74 Views: 64 Downloads: 25
Authors
[01] Bruce Roy Thulane Vilane, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Eswatini, Luyengo Campus, P/B Luyengo, Eswatini.
[02] Senele Titi Gama, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Eswatini, Luyengo Campus, P/B Luyengo, Eswatini.
Abstract
The demand for safe drinking water is continuously increasing globally, a situation that has led to the use of technologies that are safe, simple, efficient, and more importantly reduce the cost of water treatment. Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) is one of such technologies, which has attracted a lot of research interest from researchers. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of SSF on the water quality of the Usuthu Forest Company Water Scheme in Eswatini (UFCWS). The experiment had the Usuthu Forest Water Scheme’s slow sand filtered water, as the treatment with three replications. Tap water from Eswatini Water Services Corporation (EWSC) was used as a control. Water samples were taken from the inlet and outlet of the SSF treatment unit for testing physical, bacteriological and chemical quality on the same day. Data analysis was conducted using standard error bars, compared against World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water quality guidelines. The results reflected that the mean pH of the SSF UFCWS was 7.14, 6.72, 6.80 before the SSF, after SSF, and the control, respectively. The turbidity was 24.00 NTU, 1.00 NTU and 4.47 NTU before SSF, after SSF and for the control, respectively. The colour also followed the same trend, as expected. The biological quality of the SSF water indicated that the total coliforms was 1001 counts per 100 ml before SSF, 10 counts per 100 ml after SSF, and the control had 3.39 counts per 100 ml. The faecal coliforms (E. coli) in the SSF water were 80 counts per 100 ml before SSF and 0.0 counts per 100 ml after SSF and the control. The chemical SSF water results indicated that the nitrates level was 2.73 mg/L before SSF and 2.43 mg/ L after SSF, whereas the hardness was 58.5 mg/L, 55.3 mg/L and 53.7 mg/L before SSF, after SSF and the control, respectively. It was concluded that the physical water quality of the SSF UFCWS was of acceptable quality. The bacteriological quality was also found to be acceptable as evident by the values that were below the WHO guideline (5 NTU) for drinking water quality. The chemical quality of the SSF water was acceptable as evident by the values, which were lower that the WHO guideline values for both parameters in question.
Keywords
Effect, Slow Sand Filtration, Water Quality, Usuthu Forest Company Water Scheme, Eswatini
References
[01] Abushandi, E. (2021). Evidence of Improved Seawater Quality using a Slow Sand Filtration. Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal Vol. 6, No. 2, 359 - 367 (2021). https://www.astesj.com/publications/ASTESJ_060241.pdf. Accessed May, 2021.
[02] BOS, (2021). Slow sand filtration. https://www.best-osmosis-systems.com/resources/slow-sand-filtration/. Accessed March, 2021.
[03] De Souza, P. B.; Roeckera, D. D.; Silveuraa, M. L; Sensa, C. and Campos, L. C. (2021) Influence of slow sand filter cleaning process type on filter media biomass: backwashing versus scraping. Water Research. Vol. 189, 2021 116581. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135420311167?via%3Dihub. Accessed May, 2021.
[04] Gottiger, A. M.; McMartin, D. W.; Price, D. and Hanson, B. (2011). The effectiveness of slow sand filters to treat Canadian rural prairie water. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. 38: 455 - 463 (2011). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237189238_The_Effectiveness_of_Slow_Sand_Filters_to_Treat_Canadian_Rural_Prairie_Water. Accessed June, 2021.
[05] Government of Swaziland, (2009). Final Draft National Water Policy. Government of Swaziland, Mbabane, Kingdom of Swaziland.
[06] Hatch company, (1999) Hatch method 8195. Determination of turbidity by Nephelometry. Revision 2.0. Hach Company 5600. Colorado, USA. www.hach.com/asset-get.download. Accessed June, 2021.
[07] Huisman, L. (1974). Slow sand filtration. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva. https://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/ssf9241540370.pdf. Accessed June, 2021.
[08] Matuzahroh, Ni’.; Nuriana, N; Fitriani, N.; Ardiyanti, P. E.; Kuncoro, E. P. and Budiyanto, W. D. (2020). Behavior of schmutzdecke with varied filtration rates of slow sand filter to remove total coliforms. 2020Heliyon 6 (4). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340441098_Behavior_of_schmutzdecke_with_varied_filtration_rates_of_slow_sand_filter_to_remove_total_coliforms. Accessed June, 2021.
[09] Mophin-Kani, K. (2016). Efficiency of slow sand filter in wastewater treatment. Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. Vol. 7, (4): 2016. https://www.academia.edu/26977045/Efficiency_of_Slow_Sand_Filter_in_Wastewater_Treatment. Accessed May, 2021.
[10] Ndlela, Z. P.; Vilane, B. R. T. and Nkambule, N. F. (2017). An Assessment of the Mvutjini Earth Dam Water Quality at Kalanga, Swaziland. Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering. Vol. 3, (1), pp. 13 – 19.
[11] Oluk, I; Nagawa, C. B.; Tumutegyereize, P. and Owusum P. A. (2020). Slow sand filtration of raw wastewater using biochar as an alternative filtration media. Water and Environment Journal (2020) 10:1229 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-57981-0.pdf. Accessed May, 2021.
[12] Ranjan, P. and Prem, M. (2018). Schmutzdecke- A Filtration Layer of Slow Sand Filter. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences (2018) 7 (7): 637-645. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326706835_Schmutzdecke-_A_Filtration_Layer_of_Slow_Sand_Filter. Accessed June, 2021.
[13] Urfer, D. (2016). Use of bauxite for enhanced removal of bacteria in slow sand filters. Journal of Water Science and Technology: Water Supply. Vol. 16 (6): 2016. IWA Publishing 2016. http://ws.iwaponline.com/content/early/2016/12/15/ws.2016.199. Accessed May, 2021.
[14] Verma, S.; Daverey, A.; Archana, D. and Sharma, A. (2017) Slow sand filtration for water and wastewater treatment – a review. Environmental Technology Reviews 6 (1): 47 - 58. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21622515.2016.1278278. Accessed June, 2021.
[15] Vilane, B. R. T. and Gwebu, S. (2017). An Assessment of the Quality of Rainwater Harvested Using Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) Technologies in Swaziland. Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering Vol. 3, No. 6, 2017, pp. 55-64.
[16] Vilane, B. R. T. and Tembe, L. (2016). Water Quality Assessment Upstream of the Great Usuthu River in Swaziland. Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2016, pp. 57-65.
[17] WHO, (2008). Guidelines for Drinking – water Quality, Third edition incorporating the first and second addenda Volume Recommendations, Geneva. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwqfulltext.pdf. Accessed June, 2021.
[18] WHO, (Undated). TDS water quality guidelines. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/tds.pdf. Accessed July, 2021.
[19] Yusuf, K. O.; Adio-Yusuf, S. I. and Obalowu, R. O. (2019). Development of a Simplified Slow Sand Filter for Water Purification. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. Vol. 23 (3) 389-393. http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?ja19058. Accessed. Accessed March, 2021.
[20] Zanacic, E.; Stavrinides, J. and McMartin, D. W. (2016). Field–analysis of potable water quality and ozone efficiency in ozone-assisted biological filtration systems for surface water treatment. Water Research Vol. 104, (1): 2016, pp. 397 - 407. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27576158/. Accessed May, 2021.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.