Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Articles Information
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol.5, No.3, Sep. 2019, Pub. Date: May 31, 2019
The Effect of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Stress, Anxiety, Confidence, Mood and Short Term Memory Among Medical Students
Pages: 108-116 Views: 152 Downloads: 101
Authors
[01] Lim Yu Ern, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higher Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[02] Fathima Shamla Mohammed Ziyamdeen, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higher Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[03] Sabryne bt Mohd Zeidi, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higher Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[04] Narmatha a/p Tamilselvan, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higher Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
[05] Vicknesh Waren a/l Mohan, Faculty of Medicine, Melaka Manipal Medical College (Manipal Academy of Higher Education), Melaka, Malaysia.
Abstract
The aim of this research is to study the effect of positive and negative reinforcement on stress, anxiety, confidence, mood and short term memory among MMMC students. In this study, 60 participants were randomly assigned into two groups, out of which 30 were assigned into the positive reinforcement group and the other 30 into the negative reinforcement group. The planned intervention specific to each group was applied and the participants were asked to read and answer a comprehensive text for assessment of short term memory. Upon completion of it, the participants were given the post–intervention questionnaire. Finally, the participants were asked to fill a feedback form before leaving the room. The mean score for each variable and mean % for memory score was calculated using Epi info version 7 and Graph pad and the results were compared between the positive and negative reinforcement group. After application of the intervention, mean anxiety score was significantly higher, in the negative reinforcement group and significantly lower in the positive reinforcement group, with a mean of 6.5 and 4.6, respectively. All other variables also showed an increase following negative reinforcement but was not significant. However all the variables showed a significant change following positive reinforcement, with the highest change seen in mood with a score of 7.0. In conclusion, positive reinforcement has reduced the stress and anxiety level, increased the confidence level and improved the mood significantly. Whereas, negative reinforcement has increased the stress level and anxiety, and had no significant changes in mood and confidence. Students also prefer positive reinforcement over negative reinforcement. In conclusion, positive reinforcement has a better effect on reducing stress, anxiety and improving mood, confidence and short term memory.
Keywords
Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Stress, Anxiety, Confidence, Mood, Short Term Memory, Medical Students
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