Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Articles Information
Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Vol.3, No.1, Feb. 2017, Pub. Date: Oct. 17, 2017
Insect-Borne Zoonotic Diseases Representing Significant Public Health Threats and Ways for Their Avoidance
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[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The complex ecology of zoonotic infections poses both challenges and opportunities for their surveillance and control. There are numerous zoonotic diseases and infections that can be passed from animals to humans. These diseases cause mild to severe symptoms and are a definite concern for the farmers and their families. Recognizing the potential of zoonotic diseases, this article analyses the state of knowledge on public health importance of key emerging insect vector-borne zoonoses as well as their control matters. There are many disease agents that can cause disease in multiple species of animals including humans. Peoples are exposed to the bacteria, protozoa, fungi, viruses and parasites that cause zoonoses in a number of ways and therefore anyone working with or handling of animal’s needs might be infected. Shipping traffic results in the transport of larvae of several important mosquito species, such as Aedes aegypti (a vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya virus and others), Culex pipiens (a vector of West Nile virus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (a vector of West Nile virus and filariasis). Some pathogens (Plasmodium vivax) are introduced to new continents and became established and caused chronic infections in peoples. Other pathogens that have only short periods of infectiousness in peoples, including yellow fever virus and dengue virus, could also reach to distant regions in which vectors are present and might reproduce. Fortunately, the occurrence of zoonotic disease can be minimized and contact with zoonotic infection agents is preventable by taking a number of precautions including practicing good personal hygiene; providing prompt and effective first aid treatment to cuts and scratches; using personal protective equipment e.g., overalls, gloves, boots, goggles and aprons; cleaning and disinfecting work spaces and equipment; vaccinating pets and livestock; worming pets; controlling rodents; and isolating and treating sick animals. Some mosquito control programs should conduct surveillance for diseases harboured by birds, including crows, other wild animals, sentinel chicken flocks, and for these diseases in mosquitoes. Integrated vector control approach is the present trend for zoonotic diseases control defined as utilization of all appropriate technological and management techniques to bring out an effective degree of vector suppression in a cost effective manner and also to avoid the overuse of one of the methods.
Emerging Infectious Disease, Arbovirus, Public Health, Vector-Borne Disease, Zoonosis
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